As per the OXFORD dictionary, “Ethics are moral principles that govern a person’s behavior or the conducting of an activity.” Here in thisd study we will discuss the DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MORALITY AND ETHICS.
These principles always affect human beings for life matters. Ethics describes and guides individuals what is bad and what is good for them. These rules and regulations are the governing powers of our lives and influence every decision of our lives. Ethics also describes how we react when people challenge our established beliefs. The word Ethics is derived from the Greek word ethos, which means character, disposition, custom, or habit. Ethics guides human beings on how to live a good life, follow the right path, have a sense of bad and good, and adopt righteousness. Some times ethics is also called the moral philosophy, which concerns the various concepts of good and bad or virtue versus evil. The basic idea that is derived from the ethics provides awareness regarding right and wrong. Provide rules and principles for a moral human life.
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Difference Between Ethics and Law
Law is the system of rules that are managed through a proper procedure and enforced by the government institutions to maintain the law and order situation In the country. Governmental institutions and law enforcement agencies keenly observe the situation and condition of the rule of law in the country. If someone does not follow the requirements, then these law enforcement agencies impose penalties and fines on those who violate these laws. If he/she violates it dangerously, he/she will be imprisoned. So these laws are imposed by the government and also monitored by the government. The essential purpose of these laws is to maintain balance among the citizen, punish the culprits who break the rules, and do illegal activities. Law provides a model of living, behaving, earning, and maintaining relationships. These are the laws that provide rights to the citizen, as well as citizens, have rights they also have to fulfill their duties because the right of one citizen is the duty of another citizen. E.g., if we want a safe and secure environment, we want to get primary education and medication as our fundamental human rights. We need to pay our taxes. We must take care and make ourselves responsible that we will not be the cause of any inconvenience for other human beings. We will not become the cause of disturbing others and so on.
While on the other hand, Ethics are not imposed by any governmental institution. These are the set of standards of society and culture. These are practiced in groups, and people themselves monitor. People do moral support, the righteous and pious while there is hatred against the criminals and culprits in the society. People morally do hatred the person they think is considered evil monger while he will not be punished until he is proved guilty.
Ethics and related concepts
Ethics is a broad discipline, and there are various concepts in it; moreover, these concepts are followed in every field of life. We must follow the ethics in our thinking, decision making, leadership positions, and so on. We also provide and get awareness from ethics, and we adopt ethics in action and get influenced. As ethics students, we need to follow these rules and regulations in our routine life. We must avoid illegal means in our studies. We must prevent cheating and copying others in our reviews. We must provide awareness to our family members and friends circle about the everyday things that we consider are not having much importance but are ethically wrong, so we avoid them.
Islam and Ethics
Islam is a religion of peace and prosperity for humanity and all other creatures as well. It is a religion of nature. The course of Islam starts from Hazrat Adam A.S and reaches the Holy PROPHET MUHAMMAD SAW. The doctrine preached by every prophet of Allah Almighty is considered Islam, and Muslims must believe in every Prophet of Allah. But the Prophets of Allah Almighty before Hazrat Muhammad SAW were sent for a limited period or to a specific area. And the last messenger of Allah, Hazrat Muhammad SAW is not a prophet for a limited period or a particular time. HAZRAT MUHAMMAD SAW is the prophet of Allah almighty till the day of final judgment as well as for the whole universe. So this is the reason for every individual to follow the golden principles of Islam and adopt them in life. So a faithful follower of Islam believes in the oneness of Allah Almighty and also thinks the Prophet Muhammad SAW is the last Messenger and Prophet of God, and his teaching is final for the whole universe. Muslims always submits himself to Allah Almighty and follow the instructions of Islam as the command of Allah.
Fundamental Islamic Concepts and Ethics
The fundamental belief of Islam in that Allah is the only creator and master of the universe, and there is no God(Allah) except Allah Almighty. These things belong to the necessary declaration of the Islamic faith. Islamic theology’s other central concept is that Muhammad SAW is the last Prophet of Allah, and there is no messenger of Allah almighty till the final day of judgment.
As a reveled religion, Islam proves itself a fusion of faith, discipline, and philosophy. Islam describes the truthfulness and reality based on philosophical thoughts. On the other hand, it also proves itself based on conscience and intellect. And In the third stage, it applies the analytical philosophy on religion and beliefs of followers. Islam is a complete code of life and considered theology of nature. It is believed that every newborn follows the Islamic faith. So Islam is not a pure religion but a system of life and spirituality of nature.
The fundamental sources of Islamic teachings are the Holy Quran, and the Hadith of the Prophet SAW. These are the foundation of Islamic theology as well as ethics. These are the sources that command human beings, especially Muslims, to follow the right path and virtue and forbid them from evil and wickedness.
The creation of the world is by Allah Almighty, and this is the basic concept of Islam. Islam teaches us that nothing can happen without the will of Allah Almighty.
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Islam also makes a distinction between the mind, body, and soul. And according to Islam, the existence of human beings is beyond the body. After the death of the body, the soul is alive and responsible for her deeds committed in the world. This concept differs from Islam from various religions.
Christianity observes the mistake of Adam and Eve as a severe blunder and considers all sufferings of human beings in the world are due to their negligence. At the same time, Islam portrays that scenario from a whole different perspective. Christianity considers the sinful nature of humans is due to the sin of Adam and Eve. While Islam believes that their mistake was forgiven and as Messenger of Allah, Adam A.SN was pious and Masoom, so this was a process for the creation of the human race on the earth.
Sociology and Islam
The Islamic concept of worship and prayers is different from other religions. Though Christianity, Judaism, and Islam’s basic ideas are on the oneness of God, and these are revealed doctrines, but there is a difference between the prayers and worships. Islam allows a Muslim male to have four wives at a time. But also have a restriction to fulfill the necessities and rights of all wives. Islam also does not make any distinction between the social institutions and the state. According to Islam, the land must be as Islamic as a Mosque.
The Qur’an, The Sunnah, The Ijma’, and The Qiyas are the underlying sources of Islamic Shariah Law. Shariah is the body of laws in Islam while the Fiq is the interpretation of those laws for the application and understanding. Muslim Jurists explain the already existed rules. While when we observe Christianity, various laws differ from the natural order and Islamic beliefs.
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Islam believes that there must be a central government that follows the Divine Laws of Allah Almighty that are expressed in the Holy Quran, Hadith, and other sources of Islamic laws. Islam’s political concept is that it is a religion of nature, and there are no hardships in Islam. Islam does not believe in forceful conversion to it. When we observe the early Islam from the era of Our dear Prophet and last messenger of Allah Almighty, he preaches Islam through patience, courage, and bravery. People converted to Islam due to his politeness and caring behavior. There were equality, justice, and peace for Minorities, and that was and an inspiration for disbelievers to convert to Islam.
Islam gives the right to have property and business. It is not as strict as socialism: none have the right to have ownership and marketing and do not provide freehand to take anything though bribing, jobbery, and nepotism as we observe in capitalism. It provides a steadfast and mature economics system with some basic rules. The Islamic economic system has the qualities of Equilibrium, unity, responsibility, and free from Riba.
Islam does not consider the happening and incidents of life as a series of changes and happenings. As the creator of the universe, Allah Almighty is the supreme power and monitors every happening in the world. Nothing can be done without the will of Allah Almighty. So all the happenings in this universe are going on due to Allah’s will and making history.
Islamic point of view begins with the birth of Prophet Muhammad SAW. In this period, the Holy Quran revealed, and different conquest was made. Individually, Prophet Muhammad SAW started preaching Islam, and by the time people embraced Islam, and now there are 1.2 billion Muslims in the world.
Islam and Ethics
Islam is a complete code of life that provides a balanced social, economic, political, and relational system of life. Islam also makes everyone responsible for his/her deeds. Islam promises an experience full of joys who follow the Islamic rules and regulations for their worldly lives. At the same time, those who lead their survival against the standards and laws of Islam will be punished and will lead a miserable eternal life. So as Muslims, we follow these rules and regulations for the reward of a blessed eternal life. As the Prophet of Islam HAZRAT Muhammad said, بعث التمم مکارم نالخَلق that means the prophet Muhammad SAW was the best in ethics and theIR practices. There is also another narration by the Hazrat Anas RA, ” the behavior, patience, and courage of the holy prophet SAW were superior from any human being.”
The Holy Quran also states that Hazrat Muhammad SAW was at the top for ethics and their practices. It is narrated by the Hazrat Nuwass RA that Once I asked from the Holy Prophet SAW, What is difference between sin and virtue or how I can judge what sin is and what is a virtue, The Prophet of Allah Almighty said, morality is a thing that gives you peace and calm. You feel proud while sin is contrary to that, you do not want that people know about it. And you feel ashamed for it. So these are the teachings for every Muslim.
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Hopefulness and Patience
Islam gives us the message of hope. Ethically and morally, we must be hopeful, and we should not be hopeless in any condition. If we fail due to the lack of hard work and struggle, we do not lose our hearts. We must be hopeful and believe in Allah Almighty that it will be better for us, and we will be rewarded in our future life. For example, I wanted to join the police force in 2012, but I could not select for it and reject by the panel, and later on, I am selected as a teacher in the School education department I also taught at the college level. So after some time, people who were selected in the police force themselves left that job due to the hardships and difficulties in it. This is a reward for me from Allah almighty that I am as a teacher, and even police officers say to me, sir. So the essence of this, is we must be hopeful in every condition, and it should be in our mind Allah Almighty will do that is better for us. We should be confident and show patience every time. If we lose an opportunity, Allah Almighty has a better plan for us that is more suitable and convenient for us.
Respect and Love for others
Islam always teaches the lesson of respect and love for others. If we have a respectful and loving personality, we will be succeeded in our life. It is a saying that “do respect, have respect.” There is also a Holy Hadith of Prophet Muhammad SAW, who do not have respect for elders and do not love for youngsters is not a true Muslim. So love and respect is the basic concept of Modern ethics and Islamic Teachings. Due to the teachings of Islam, we always try to respect our elders and love our children. As a Muslim, we follow these ethics not only to portray ourselves, good citizens, in our society but also as a religious obligation. We will get a reward on the day of the final judgment if we follow these rules and regulations.
Helping the Poor and Needy
Islam has the concept of ZAKAT, Fitter, Usher, and many other Donation for helping others. Islam always takes care of the needy and poor. So Islam has introduced such a concept for helping others. As true Muslims, we follow these teachings of Islam and pay these donations to the poor and needy. Modern ethics also teaches us to help others. Islam also takes excellent care for the self-esteem and self-respect of others. It is the teaching of Islam that helps others in a way that none can know about it, even the person who is going to be supported, he could not know who has helped him. As the followers of Islam, we obey these teachings that differentiate us from other human beings.
Ethics and relationship
There is a little DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MORALITY AND ETHICS. Every individual has to maintain different relations in society. At the same time, we are a father, brother, husband, uncle, nephew, neighbor, cousin, and social beings in a community. So we have to perform these relations and follow our ethical duties in society. We need to perform these duties in a well managed and principled grounds. These relations in community and family are significant, and we must follow ethics in a relationship.
Honesty and truthfulness
As a follower of Islam and modern ethics, we adopt honesty in our daily life. We take care of our deeds and speak the truth in our communication and talks. It the lesson of Islam as well as modern ethics. When we observe our Prophet Muhammad SAW’s life, we find that he was an embodiment of truthfulness, virtue, and honesty. Even the enemies of Islam put their precious belongings in his custody, and due to these qualities, they called him SADIQ and AMIN( Embodiment of Honesty and truthfulness). So a Muslims, it is our sacred duty to follow integrity and honesty. It gives them peace of mind and self-satisfaction to us, and we feel self-contentment in our life.
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In conclusion, we can say that ethics are essential for the betterment of any society. And if we follow the teachings of Islam Solely, than there is no ethical value that is not available in the education of Islam. Islam is the best and significant religion for practice that takes care of the rights, ethics, and duties of the members of the society. Islam also promises for the rewards and blessings which follow it as the will of Allah. So it is the need of the hour to follow these ethics by following Islam. All our Prophets, religious scholars, Intelligentsia, and Social thinkers agree that ethics are essential for the betterment of society, and all ethics are available in Islam.
Written & Reviewed by; Muhammad Asad Kasra,
M.Phil Scholar, Riphah Institute of Language and Literature, Riphah International University Lahore, Pakistan.