Kashmir has been a very sensitive issue in the UN since Pakistan and India have come into existence. Three wars have been fought between India and Pakistan, two (1947-1948, 1965) were over Kashmir! Kashmir has been sandwiched between these two states since 1947, however, it was a Muslim majority princely state with a Hindu ruler. The United Nations has taken charge of the Kashmir issue but still has not got to any impartial decision. In this article you are going to have an overview of Kashmir’s status to date.
History of Kashmir Issue:
With the termination of British rule and division of India triggered a battle for control of Kashmir. Since 1947, neighboring India and Pakistan have held a portion of the Muslim majority territory. A first began in 1947 after Pakistani tribal militia entered the preceding princely region of Jammu and Kashmir. Maharaja Hari Singh, the king of the state at the time, asked India for help and signed a letter of accession to India’s last British viceroy, Lord Lois Mountbatten. Kashmir was conditionally believed into the Indian Union pending an unrestricted and fair referendum. British viceroy made it crystal clear that Kashmir will lead under the possession of India only after the fair and plebiscite of Kashmiris, and from the fear of defeat India always hinder the accession.
India and Pakistan have fought wars over the Kashmir dispute, and India took the Kashmir issue to the UN on 1st January 1948. After that, on 15th January 1948, Pakistan submitted their allegation on India which was far wider.
Kashmir Issue and UNO Resolutions 39, 47:
On 20th January 1948, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 39 contributing a peaceable resolution for Kashmir issue by setting up a three-membered commission. One from Pakistan, one from India, and the other with the consent of both countries. But unfortunately, there were no such implementations on the adopted resolution by the UN. After realizing the adversity of conflict UN adopted another Resolution 47 on 21st April 1948, in which they increased the number of members of a commission to go in the subcontinent to reinstate harmony and conduct a fair plebiscite to decide the fortune of KASHMIR.
Cease Fire and Formation of the Line of Control:
After critically taking all the disastrous circumstances into account UNSC decided to impose a ceasefire between these neighboring countries which is still known with the name of ‘Line of Control’. The following years adopted many resolutions for the betterment of the state, which briefly stated that the folks of Kashmir will determine their fate through exploiting impartial plebiscite rights. The prominent Shimla agreement, after the 1965 war, officially formed the Line of Control between Pakistan and India territory. Another war at the Kargil region, in 1999, further provoked both countries.
In 2010 another conflict came to scene when Kashmir’s local youngsters started to attack the India security forces, railways, government offices and official vehicles, which really intensified a bloodshed in the state, and as always Indian government alleged it is as Pakistan’s war game and they blamed Pakistani militant group, Lashkar e Taiban for this action. Further in 2016 the unrest took place due to the killing of youngster Burhan Wani and after a Pulwama attack in 2019. Indian Army have always been mistreated the local human rights of Kashmiris. There were a lot cases of harassment, human abasement, torture and massacres of innocent people. Even if anyone wanted to sue any abased army representative, Indian army tend them to not enter the case or not even gave the right to file one, human rights abuses were not attempted in a civil court against any Indian army representative.
ABROGATION OF ARTICLE 370 and 35A & COMPLETE LOCK DOWN IN KASHMIR
The Indian government canceled the particular status conferred to Indian-administered Kashmir in its constitution, the most wide-ranging political move on the contested state in almost 70 years.
A presidential declaration issued on August 5 again withdrawn Article 370 of India’s constitution that promised specific rights to the Muslim-majority region, comprising the right to its charter and independence to make laws on all issues except protection, telecommunications, and foreign affairs. In lead-up to the move, India forwarded thousands of further troops to the disputed state, imposed an immobilizing curfew, blackout telecommunications and internet, and seized political leaders.
India and Pakistan argue Kashmir in full but rule it in part. The nuclear-armed nationals have fought two wars over the disputed region. An uprising in Indian-administered Kashmir has been continuing for 30 years.
Kashmir Issue and Pakistan Stand:
But in recent times again Pakistan has taken many steps forward towards Kashmir Liberty. The Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan bared the corrupt face of Bharti Narendra Modi in front of all commission and the general public. The Pakistan government is also presenting Kashmir issue efficiently on international forums, World Economic Forums and United Nations included.
Kashmir issue being represented thrice on an international forum during last six months is itself a success of Pakistan’s efforts for Kashmir’ rights.
And the good news is that the latest coverage of Kashmir has revealed that after complete lockdown of seven months, today, the Kashmir has reconnected there a state with the world through the internet, also after seven months, the children have seen the gates of their schools and attended classes with the brightness of new hope in their eyes.
International Community and Struggle for Peace in Kashmir:
United States, China, Washington, Britain and the Soviet Union and many other states have also paid their role in creating peace between the two countries and resolving the Kashmir issue. But India continued to resist internationalizing the issue and always rejected other’s efforts.
Kashmir issue is a global concern because it is a Pakistan and India’s territories problem and both countries have immense support from two superpowers i.e. China and US., that show threats from other superpower countries rather than only from sole neighboring countries.
China Pakistan’s friendship clearly states that China demonstrates security support for Pakistan during the time of skirmishes between Pakistan and India. China declared to steadily support the development of Pakistani Military regardless of any confirmation of war or confrontations. Similarly, United States’ support with India is a great threat for Pakistan as well as for China because if these superpowers ever come face to face in a battel it going to have the worst results to date.
The world has shown huge interest in the situation and has given time to time propositions for the resolution of the conflict.
James Buchan said once that we should think wiser and start helping the grievances of Kashmir, Iraq and Palestine and the regions of backwardness.
Murad Saeed said, not merely Kashmir is India Pakistan issue, it needs to be solved on international forum. He repeated the promise to focus India brutalities in captured Kashmir on an international level.
Advantages of UN Resolution For Kashmiris:
- No further so-called ‘harassment and provocation’ by Indian armed forces.
- Conceivably no more interfering with any foreigners.
- Liberty: address n expression, they get their homeland.
Kashmir Issue, India and Pakistan:
- No more conflict about law and order in the state.
- Save a lot of wealth and lives of our youngsters (soldiers).
- May Perhaps get some international consideration on human rights concerns.
- Pressure on other countries like China, the US, and Israel to set free those who want to be liberated.
Disadvantages of UN Resolution From Kashmiri point of view:
- Not any more protection by other States.
- Risk of many neighboring countries for trying to invade Kashmir the moment India and Pakistan withdraw their troops from the region.
- No longer non-lapsable funding by other States.
- No technical backing, no access to Indian and Pakistani markets, education system, and tourism.
- Will primarily find a tough time to endure.
Disadvantage of UNO Resolutions From Indian and Pakistan point of view:
- Security issues (porous borders of Punjab Himachal Pradesh) India gets more vulnerable.
- Dropping crucial water source.
- Hindu pilgrims have no connection to Vaishnodevi shrine nor Muslim pilgrims to the Hazratbal mosque.
- Squandering a very powerful culture of Kashmir with which we had close down cultural links since artifacts.
- Fuel to another secessionist movement across the length n breadth of the nation (Nasalism..Bodo..Naga Khalistan movement).
- Loss of moral standards in the international community.
Suggestions for the Peace in Kashmir:
By overviewing the Kashmir’s condition from 1947 to date, to say that India has always been disobedient to UN resolutions and commissions would not be wrong. Sincere suggestions for the issue are that the UN must strictly command both neighboring countries to follow the resolutions that it passes and get to some impartial decision. Another effort from Kashmiris can also be done by them, that they should try to improve their literacy rate, also can create firm political parties constituting educated members so they can represent their nation on international forums by their youngsters. But right now, the UN should take fair plebiscite among the electorate of Kashmir. There are almost 80 percent Muslims who want to live their lives according to Islamic ways. So, the UN must pass a resolution in which the Kashmiris either live as an independent state or become a part of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Both the countries go along the directions of the UN whatever the commission says just stick to it and achieve the desired goals.
‘Resolution is a written document that is adopted by the United Nations body, on what the UN wants to do about a particular global problem.’
Dogmatic and bigoted states have made a killing off humanity in Kashmir and an example of a global curse for the entire humanity. Still there is no such Resolution that is fully implemented hence Kashmir is a disputed state and God knows when and is that really could ever happen to give freedom to the Kashmiris.
Written By: Najiya Ejaz Chaudhry, Jiyach114@gmail.com