The mechatronic field is the first thing that comes in the mind when an engineer thinks about the relationship between electronics and mechanics. It is the combined principles of electronics and mechanics. In mechatronics word, mecha stands for mechanics while Tronics stands for electronics. Mechatronics is the incorporation of power electronics, sensors, control algorithms and decisions, actuators for the management complications, communication, and uncertainty. So here we are going to discuss the details of MECHATRONICS IN A BROADER SPECTRUM.
1.Product realization based on Mechatronics:
The characteristic of engineering systems is such that it delivers the opportunity to include various components from the different disciplines for the formation of product analysis, design, and synthesis. Mechatronics gives the entire guidance about the realization process of products by exploiting the engineering systems from design to deployment cycle. The various methods, including computer engineering, mechanical, information, and electrical systems, combine throughout at ongoing procedure during design for the right combination of parts at the time of deployment.
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2.Mechatronics Evolution as a design paradigm:
The development in technology for the procedures of design, development, and product operation is due to the revolution in the industry, a revolution in semiconductor devices, and revolution in information technology.
2.1 Revolution in the industry:
The permissible design of components creates for the transferring as well as the conversion of energy by engineers that allows the power used to carry out the work. In this era, the designs mostly belong to the mechanical side. For example, the numerous operations for transmission of motion, actuation, computation, and sensing usually performed by the usage of mechanical components like levers, cams, gears, and linkages. However, the purely automated system does not possess the ability of power amplification, so semiconductor devices fulfil the inability of power amplification in mechanical devices.
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2.2Revolution in semiconductor devices:
Semiconductor devices developed the technology of integrated circuits. That miniaturized power electronics which are useful and provide amplification along with the deliverance of power needed for the actuator’s function. In digital technology, signal conditioning has done filtering and encoding. The mechanical devices control by digital integrated circuits.
2.3Revolution in information technology:
The advancement in VLSI technology led to the creation of a microcontroller, microcomputer, and a microprocessor, which are small, cheap, and ubiquitous. For decision making, these computer hardware can be successfully interfaced and embedded with electromechanical systems. The mechanical components are swapping with microcontrollers nowadays as microcontrollers programming also serves as a useful alternative for the digital hardware of computers. Virtual, as well as physical energy, can now be processed and transmitted by the devices integrated by electrical, mechanical, and equipment.
The elements that belong to the mechanical field are thermo-fluid, mechanism, mechanical structure, and hydraulic features in the mechatronics system. The properties might be static and dynamic in those mechanical elements, while those elements should possess the power to generate heat, force, and motion. Some of the mechanical aspects are gears, slider-crank, and springs.
The electrical elements that widely use in mechatronics are inductor, resistor, transformer, and circuits. In contrast, the items that come in the category of electronics are transistors, power electronics, operational amplifiers, digital electronics, and signal conditioning.
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The elements related to electromechanical are sensors that help in measuring several physical variables. For example, light measures by photoresistor, while potentiometer measures displacement. The actuators also own an essential place in mechatronics. Some commonly use actuators are solenoid, stepper motor, electromagnet, speaker, DC servomotor, and pump.
4.Evaluation levels of mechatronics:
The mechatronics divides into several levels that are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary level mechatronics.
4.1 Primary level Mechatronics:
This level only involves the formation of those types of products that contain sensors and actuators for transferring electrical signals together with some mechanical action at a single level, e.g. electrically controlled fluid valves.
4.2 Secondary Level Mechatronics:
The microelectronics embedded into electrical devices in the secondary level like a cassette player.
4.3 Tertiary Level Mechatronics:
The system that develops at this level, known as a smart system. In this level, microprocessors, microelectronics, and integrated circuits incorporated into the control strategy, for example, CD drives, DVD players, automatic washing machines.
4.4 Quaternary Level Mechatronics:
The smartness enhances at this level a few steps ahead by the introduction of fault detection, intelligence, and the isolation capability systems like in artificial neural networks.
5. Process control automation:
In engineering, the vital role plays by automatic control for advancement purposes. Nowadays, automatic control has also emerged as a critical part of the industrial and manufacturing process after seeing its triumphant progress in robot and space vehicles system. A process is simply the transfer of inputs set, such as methods, actions, material, and operations, into the required output in some product form. In contrast, performance measurement for a process is known as control and lessens labour usage is the primary purpose of automation.
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5.1 Process control steps:
Firstly, the process variable is measured, then the comparison establishes along with an evaluation with some desired level for better efficiency, and the final step parameter controlled that involved at the required level.
5.2 Important terms in process control:
The conditions that humidistat measured the changes, thermostat, and pressure controllers measured humidity, temperature, pressure, and moisture content.
5.2.2 Control system:
This system comprises of energy sources for input, control device, and the controller.
5.2.3 Control device:
This device not only reacts with the signals obtained by the controller but also responsible for flow variation of the control agent, for example, motor driving a pump, fan, etc.
5.2.4 Control Variables:
The variables which should control during the process are control variables, such as pressure, temperature, and humidity.
6. Applications of mechatronics:
Mechatronics help in the manufacturing of smart consumer products: microwave oven, control units for climate, oven, home security, and dishwasher. In the medical field, mechatronics helps in making implant devices. The various countries nowadays also using the mechatronics systems for their defence in the production of underwater and ground vehicles, jet engines, smart munitions, etc. The robotics and essential manufacturing process for different machines develop by using mechatronics systems. Mechatronics also has several applications in the automotive field.
Read also: Introduction and History of Mechanics
1 Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering. “Mechatronics Engineering.” Future undergraduate students. The University of Waterloo. Retrieved 21 November 2019
- Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics, and Interdisciplinary Studies TUL. “Mechatronics (Bc., Ing., PhD.).” Retrieved 15 April 2011.
Written By: Ch Talha Shahid Email; email@example.com